Do you think that the international style restricted the creativity of the designer? Use direct quotes from the lecture and reading to validate your answer. Cite the quotes and sources correctly using MLA style.
After the Second World War to what extent was design influenced by the fine art trends of the twentieth century? Use direct quotes from the lecture and reading to validate your answer. Cite the quotes and sources correctly using MLA style.
At first blush some may think the international style restricted the creativity of designers but an informed opinion will likely see “imaginative eclecticism and creative use of technology” in designers that “did not fit the universal model and developed their own equally contemporary styles” . (Graphic Design History A Critical Guide) During the 1950’s companies became corporations and the need for a system of identity for the vertical and well as horizontal integration of the divisions and activities of the world wide offices. Art directors needed a mode of communication that was as clear in the US as it was in Europe and Japan. The grids and structure needed for the International style insisted on sans serif and geometric compositions like those found in New Graphic Design, a journal started in 1959 and “assisted in disseminating ideas about Swiss design and the international style.” (The Age of information, Graphic Design) “The Swiss style sprang from its own aesthetic sources, but its clean, neutral forms were so well suited to the image needs of the new business patterns that the entire movement could have been invented to serve those interests.” (Graphic Design History A Critical Guide) America contributed to and became involved in the international style through designers like Paul Rand; “he was the channel through which European modern art and design Russian Constructivism, Dutch De Stijil and the German Bauhaus was introduced to American commercial art.” (my fonts)
After the second world war fine art influence was found in a variety of places. Bradbury Thompson’s graphic designs transposed images from earlier eras such as printers cuts, decorative elements and novelty type into contemporary compositions.” (Graphic Design History A Critical Guide) “Otto Storch brought typographic verve to the high toned-color and striking poses of the models.( McCalls image 1959) The sheer density of color printing, along with its inexpensive availability, changed the graphic designer’s art, as did the use of photographic means to arrange typographic elements,including those knocked out of solid fields. Storch’s simple shapes and saturated hues echo the work of geometric abstract painters of the 1950’s, such as Barnett Newman, although the stylistic innovations of advertising and editorial design may have nothing to do with the aesthetic concerns of the anarchist painter.” (Graphic Design History A Critical Guide) Typography and photography influenced design in Phototypsetting. Initially “the process was cumbersome and not widely adopted… both because capital investment in equipment made it impractical to change and because, even when offset was the ultimate means of reproduction, a letterpress proof still provided the ‘original’, a photograph of which became the basis for an offset plate. Next came purely film and light-based processes that eliminated the need for a hard copy to be photographed.” (Graphic Design History A Critical Guide, page)
sources cited and paraphrased:
The Art Institute of Pittsburgh online division History and Analysis of Design, The Age of Information, Graphic Design
my professors comments:
Excellent work, Tiffany. Your answer brings to mind the way creativity has flourished in web design. This is a medium loaded with restrictions because of the dependence on HTML. Yet there are outstanding web designs that work within those restrictions. Today, the restrictions are even embraced to create much better designs than those of five or ten years ago. You bring this type of thinking to light in your second response and the stylistic innovations that focused less on aesthetics and more on message.
Great work. Very well done.