1. Beyond printed text from a printing press, what were the major commercial reproduction processes developed during this period? What new “media forms” and industries sprang up as result of these new processes? Use direct quotes from the lecture and reading to validate your answer. Cite the quotes and sources correctly using MLA style.
2. What elements defined the arts and crafts movement? What elements defined the art nouveau style? What do you see as the differences and similarities between the two styles? Use direct quotes from the lecture and reading to validate your answer. Cite the quotes and sources correctly using MLA style.
The industrial revolution brought about a number of mechanized systems which launched mass commercial reproduction into our lives. The invention of a steam power made things like a cast iron printer possible in 1800. “The next improvement—in 1827—was the creation of a four-cylinder steam-powered press that could print 4,000 pages on both sides per hour. This press was developed by Cowper and his partner, Ambrose Applegath”. (Impact of the industrial revolution) The process was also improved by a paper making invention in 1801 by John Gamble that allowed for long continuos sheets of paper to be made at one time, and the Linotype machine created by Ottmer Mergenthaler which made it possible for the long sheets of paper to be printed continuously and was demonstrated for the first time in 1886 in the offices of the New York Tribune (The Impact of the Industrial Revolution)
Production of larger typefaces used on poster and billboards were pumped out at increasing sizes. “Font foundries continued to produce larger type, using traditional methods. With some typefaces twelve lines deep, the metal type for each letter could weigh up to one pound. Metal type was brittle and, often, the printing surface would be concave.” (The Impact of the Industrial Revolution) Wood typesetting came back into practice, this time using a lateral router designed by Darius Wells in 1827.
Joseph Niepce began experimenting with emulsions in 1822 created sun engravings which was the beginnings of what we know today as photography. This process had several iterations before the most famous of the first commercial companies became available, Kodak in 1887.
Muliti color images emerged with lithography in 1837, chromolithography in 1940 and reached its height between 1860-1900. Boston became somewhat of a hub for lithography producing vividly colored posers, magazine and book covers by William Sharp, as well as holiday greeting cards by Louis Prang. This medium spread across the nation and was used for printing needs of all kinds right down to labels on grocery cans.
Material was being pushed out en mass and with speed, trying to meet the demand of not just the upper but now also middle class who could afford the furniture and literature available at lower prices. “Industrialization lowered publishing and production standards dramatically in the 19th century… The use of high speed presses and machine made paper, and the rapid releases of large editions of for a mass market, meant that the care and craft of hand press production disappeared under commercial pressures.” ( Graphic Design History A Critical Guide) This relentless demand resulted in a downturn in quality and that spurred the birth of the arts and crafts movement. in 1884 Jonh Ruskin and William Morris sought to bring about the return to expressions of individualism. The Artworks Guild was formed and expanded into the Combined Arts Society in 1888 which saw to it that high quality hand made goods such as furniture and books were once again available to serve society.
The introduction of Japanese art influenced the art nouveau movement which spanned 1890-1910. Flowing lines a focus on nature and animals and exceptionally high quality are tell tale signs of art nouveau which was also eventually applied to furniture such as in Louis Comport Tiffany’s lamps. However art nouveau made it’s way to the people in a widely available form as well, posters, and were found everywhere from private collections to advertising across major cities.
The major difference between the two movements is the arts and crafts movement focused much more on the work being specifically crafted by hand and art nouveau focused more on the ornate and flowing lines even if some tweaking needed to be made by machine at one stage or another. What the art and craft movement and art nouveau have in common is the desire to produce high quality craftmenship, focus on nature and both gave growing importance to the role of designers. “This movement followed the ideas that were first presented in The Century Guild Hobby Horse asserting that the designer-illustrator who worked in printing was equal in status to other classical artists like painters and sculptors.” (The impact of the Industrial Revolution)